Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain. There are two major types of IBD Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). In case of inflammatory bowel diseases human body’s immune system attacks elements of the digestive system.
Main difference between Crohn’s disease and UC is the location and nature of the inflammatory changes. Crohn’s Disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus whereas Ulcerative Colitis is restricted to the colon and the rectum. Crohn’s Disease affects the whole bowel wall whereas Ulcerative Colitis is restricted to the epithelial lining of the gut.
Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, internal cramps in the region of pelvis and weight loss are the common symptoms for both Crohn’s Disease and UC although both are very different diseases. Diagnosis is generally done through assessment of inflammatory markers in stool, colonoscopy with biopsy of pathological lesions.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease is a complex disease which arises as a result of the interaction of environmental and genetic factors.